东方仕女图式的当代转换,用眼光质询存在

 绘画     |      2020-01-06

人物画、肖像画历来是视觉艺术景观中最为引人瞩目的部分,人类通过身体认识世界,作为视觉对象和视觉表象的身体是人类关照自身进而关照世界的途径和方式,因此一部艺术史甚至可以浓缩为人物形象史,或者说是身体的历史。

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Figure paintings and portraitures have always been the most attractive elements in the visual arts, people learn about the world through the body. Body as a visual object and visual representation is an approach in which people reflect upon themselves and the world at large, therefore the history of art can often be condensed to the history of portraits, or history of the body.

美术理论家贡布里希有一句名言:绘画是一种活动,所以艺术家的倾向是看他要画的东西,而不是画他看到的东西。在今天这个欲望喷涌和体验翻新的消费文化时代,贡布里希所揭示的原理是否还适用呢?如果你去琢磨江衡的美女系列作品,也许会有所发现。在他的图像学里,一个独特的图像形态美女跃然画面。更有趣的是,这些长相各异的美女脸上,一个突出的图像符号一以贯之:大得不合比例的眼睛。那一对又一对大眼睛正凝视着什么?当你作为观者去凝视这一凝视时,又会有何种发现?

其中女性形象更是时代视觉的焦点,作为具有鲜明象征意义的符号,在单纯的生理意义之外,女性被不断赋予各种社会的、文化的涵义,因此不管是中国还是西方,一部女性视觉形象史既是艺术形象变迁史,也是美学意识的流变史,当然还是社会形象嬗变史,映照出社会及文化的沧海桑田。

The art theorist Gombrich has a famous saying that, Painting is an activity, so the artists tendency depends on what he wants to paint, rather than painting what he perceives. In todays overwhelming flux of desire and the ever-renewing experience of consumption culture, is Gombrichs principle still applicable? If one reflects upon Jiang Hengs series of femme fatale, perhaps one would find the unique image of the femme fatale. What is more interesting is, among the varying faces of these beautiful women, one symbol transgresses them is their disproportionate eyes. What are those big eyes staring at? To stare into such gaze as an observer, what would you discover?

Amongst which, the female figure becomes the visual focus of any given time. With distinctive symbolic meaning, besides its physiological meaning, females have been assigned to various social and cultural significances. Whether in the West or in China, a visual history of female portraits is not only an developmental history of art, but also the transformation of aesthetic ideology. Of course, it is also the history of social evolution, reflecting the diversity of a given society and culture.

我以为,大眼睛作为一个标志性的图像符号,或许就是画家美女系列作品要画的东西!

而在视觉艺术领域,作为视觉符号和语言的艺术图式具有至关重要的意义,它既传达了视觉效果和审美心理,同时也阐释了其文化意义、传播了相关文化语境,可以说,确立图式和个性化、风格化具有同构作用。对每一个艺术家而言,艺术图式的自我确立可谓其最高追求。女性形象图式的探索是人物画的重要命题,众多艺术家们为此而皓首穷经。绵延千年的中国仕女画佳作迭出,为人类文化贡献了无数精华和传奇,《洛神赋图》、《捣练图》、《簪花仕女图》等至今让当代人动容折腰。从汉朝帛画开始,仕女图式随着时代、文化的变迁而变化:魏晋神仙贤妇的高古飘逸,唐代贵族的丰腴闲适,宋元平民的细腻丰富,直到明清时代,文化的衰弱表征为女性形象的柔弱、忧郁和纤瘦。因此到了19世纪末20世纪初,所谓传统仕女画的内涵相对固定,宣扬女性倚风娇无力的阴柔、赢弱、幽郁之美,追求柔和、恬静、含蓄的品格,所以削肩、丹凤眼、柳叶眉、瓜子脸、樱桃小口的美人成为传统仕女形象的标准图式。

I believe, the big eyes are a remarkable symbol is perhaps what the artist want to paint in his femme fatale series.

In the field of visual arts, the motif as visual symbols and language plays a pivotal role. It does not only achieve certain visual effects and satisfy aesthetic psychology, at the same time it explains the cultural significance and relevant cultural context entailed. In other words, to establish a motif and individual and stylistic elements are mutually effective. For each artist, to establish an artistic motif is considered his ultimate pursuit. The exploration of the female figure has been an important theme in portraiture. Many artists study the subject throughout their lives. The thousands of years of Chinese paintings on courtesan ladies have contributed a plethora of essence and legends to Chinese art. The Nymph of Luo River, Ladies Preparing Newly Woven Silk, Cout Ladies Wearing Flower Headdresses, are works still mesmerize the contemporaries. Since paintings on silk of the Han dynasty, paintings on courtesans have transformed with time and cultural transformation from being fluid and elegant wise women of the Wei and Jin dynasty, to the plumb nobles of the Tang dynasty, to the delicate and rich commoners of the Song and Yuan dynasty, to representation of cultural downfall with women portrayed as weak, melancholy and fragile. Therefore, at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, the meaning of so-called traditional paintings on court ladies is relatively fixed, it exemplifies the feminine qualities of fragile beauty as gentle and exquisite, feeble, melancholic, soft, tranquil, and introverted. Therefore, the traditional courtesans are often portrayed with sloping shoulders, small eyes, thin eyebrows, slim faces, and tiny mouths.

我们都知道,消费社会是一个高度视觉化的社会,看不仅是消费体验的通道,更是生存的在场证明。文化与视觉的关系,在当下实现了前所未有的合谋。好酒不怕巷子深的时代一去不复返了,只有那些看得见并吸引眼球的东西,才有难以想象的魔力。法国思想家德波所谓景观社会的预言已成现实。美女的大眼睛在看我们的同时邀请我们去看。于是,看本身及其艺术表现遂成为江衡绘画的基本主题。

在20世纪的历史进程和视觉文本中,女性形象成了具有重大象征和突破意义的视觉符号,它与个性解放、思想解放、女性解放等主题紧密相联,女性对自由和独立的呼唤呐喊成为时代最响亮最迫切的声音之一,女性图式随之发生重大转变。建国后的革命美术中,根正苗红、吃苦耐劳的铁姑娘是新时代美好女性的代言人,在文革后的伤痕美术、乡土现实主义、新古典主义等美术潮流中,女性大多被寄予了个性化、人性化的理想品格,何家英、王沂东、靳尚谊、杨飞云、陈逸飞等人的画里,女性形象美好而温润。

As we know, the consumption society is a highly visual society, viewing is not only a way in which to experience consumption but a proof of existence. The relationship between culture and visual culture have reached unprecedented conspiracy in the present. The time of discovering a good drink in the deep alley has been long gone, what is before us are those in front of our eyes, emitting unimaginable power. The French philosopher Guy Debords so-called Social Landscape has became a reality. The femme fatales eyes while gazing at us invite us to stare back. Therefore, the act of viewing and its artistic representation became the basic top of Jiang Hengs paintings.

Throughout the historical development and visual archives of the 20th century, the female figure becomes the most symbolic and penetrating visual emblem. It is closely tied to the liberation of individualism, emancipation of conservative mentalities, and the emancipation of women. The womens scream for freedom and independence thus became the loudest sound of this era. Subsequently, the motif of women underwent significant transformation. The revolutionary art after the founding of the Peoples republic, the righteous, hardworking iron-women were representatives of the new era, in the scar art, folk realist art and new classical art after the Cultural Revolution, most women were portrayed with individualism, personal ideals and qualities. Among the paintings by He Jiaying, Wang Yidong, Jin Shangyi, Yang Feiyun, Chen Yifei and others, the female image is portrayed idyllically and moist.

毫无疑问,画家最关注看,但并非每个画家都自觉地把看本身作为表现对象。在江衡的诸多系列画中,反复出现的美女构成了一个贯穿性的符号原型,姑且称之美女系列。仔细审视这些美女,不免会被那些关于看的赤裸真理所震撼。我注意到,在江衡的美女系列作品中,多少有点像瓷娃娃的各式美女,必定个个眼睛大得眩惑恐怖。这些超出了正常比例的大眼睛,把视觉这个消费社会的最要紧的感知体验方式,用一种极端夸张的方式彰显出来。不仅如此,透过那形色各异的眼神和视线,花花世界的种种视觉诱惑暗中传递出来。注意一下黑眼球的高光点处理,从模糊的圆形斑点(如《散落的物品36》),到类似惊叹号的反射(如《散落的物品54》),再到仿佛是窗框的映射(如《美丽的花儿2》),这不同的表达方式折射出眼睛对大千世界的渴望,映射出视线对生活万般神奇的流连。我们不禁为那些夸张的眼睛所惊异,为那些企盼的眼神所感召,为那些欲望化的眼光所迷魅。或许有理由说,美女之瞥不啻是一个关于消费社会的视觉文化寓言。

90年代以来消费文化浩浩荡荡带来了新的价值新的理念,物体系成为新文化的温床、母体、制约者和规训者,作为消费文化观察者、叙述者、表现者的女性形象必然发生重大转折和变更。敏感的视觉艺术家们如何描绘我们时代的女性形象?或者说当代仕女图式应该如何绘制?为时代女性画像,创建具备当代性的仕女图式,是艺术面临的重大挑战,也是艺术家的重要机遇。

Undoubtedly, the painter is most interested in viewing, yet now all painters consciously treat viewing as the object of representation. In Jiang Hengs numerous series, the reoccurring image of the femme fatale became the transgressing emblem, thus entitled the Femme Fatale Series. Examining these women in detail, we cannot help to be shocked by the naked truth about viewing. I noticed that Jiang Hengs femme fatale series are somewhat akin to the ceramic dolls, because their eyes are nevertheless scarily large. These usual proportions have displayed the most crucial sensation for this consumption society with the most exaggerated manner. Moreover, behind the plethora of gazes and stares, myriads of visual enticements sip out. Noted is the highlight of on the dark eyes, from the ambiguous round dot (in Scattered Object 36) to the reflection similar to an exclamation mark (in Scattered Object 54), or the seemingly reflection of the display window (Beautiful Flower 2). These ways of expression reflect the eyes desire to the wonders of this world, and the lingering visions on the enigmas of life. We cannot help but to feel appalled by those exaggerated eyes, drawn to those longing eyes, and attracted to the gazes of desire. Perhaps there is reason of these womens glance is a visual culture fable of the consumption society.

Since the 1990s, consumer culture has brought forth new values and new ideals. The materialistic system became the breading ground, nourishing body, restriction and regulator for the new culture. The female figure as the observer, narrator, player of the consumer culture, certainly would undergo drastic changes. How would the sensible visual artist portray the female figure of our time? In other words, how would one paint the image of the contemporary courtesan? To paint the portrait of the contemporary women in the style of courtesan women, yet without losing a sense of time, became the biggest challenge for artists, at the same time, it was also an important opportunity.

图一,马格利特《虚假的镜子》(1928)

在众多风格迥异的创作中,艺术家江衡绘制了一份出人意表的视觉答卷。从90年代开始,江衡就孜孜不倦埋首于当代美女的创作,《美女鱼》系列、《满天星》系列、《散落的物品》系列、《消费时代的景观》系列,一直到2008年的《花蝴蝶》、《蝴蝶飞飞》系列,美人,是画面永恒的主角。可以说,他是当代美人图的忠实的探索者、创作者。

图二,江衡《蝴蝶飞飞》(2007)

Among different styles, the artist Jiang Heng presents a visual answer much to our surprises. Since the 1990s, Jiang Heng has been painting the femme fatale of the present, Femme Fatale-Fish, Starry Night, Scattered Objects, Landscape of the Consumption Era, until the Butterfly, Fluttering Butterfly series of 2008, beautiful women has been the main character throughout. We can say, Hes an avid explorer and creator of contemporary paintings of beauty.

这里,我想通过参照比较两幅画来比较,从中也许我们可以解读出江衡大眼美女图的复杂意味。一幅可以比较的是比利时超现实主义画家马格利特的《虚假的镜子》(图一)。在这幅画中,马格利特借助眼球的镜面反射,清晰再现出一幅蓝天白云的真实景象。作为超现实主义画家,这幅画也许反映了记忆中的梦幻之景,但却是以极其真实的自然景象来表现,颇有些假作真来真亦假的意趣。反观江衡作品,比如《蝴蝶飞飞》(图二),美女的眼神充满了好奇,她在凝视这个世界。不仅用自己的眼睛,而且借助放大镜来审视这个世界,要把这个世界看个清楚。假如说马格利特超现实主义的眼光折射出的真实景观是以反语方式的梦幻来表达的话,那么,在江衡的美女那里,眼光却是高度梦幻地真实表达。换言之,美女作为一种审视这个充满了物欲的消费世界象征符号,逼真地彰显出今天这个视觉文化时代的真谛:用眼睛去大量并消费这个世界。这里,眼睛被高度象征化和夸张化了。的确,只要对当下日常生活稍加打量就会发现,一切诱惑人的东西首先呈现为景观(spectacle)。整个世界都已转化为形象,德波说得好:景观是由以下事实所导致的,即现代人完全成了观者。这就导致了景观在现代社会中的统治和暴力。当人们沉溺于日常生活审美化的讨论时,一个重要的事实在江衡的作品中被揭示出来了,那就是今天的文化是一种体验性的文化。体验的首要方式就是视觉,眼睛不仅打量着一切,恰如画面上那美女高度象征性的眼神一样,更重要的是,人们还要借助各种技术手段在视觉上消费这一文化,放大镜不过是各种数字技术、传播技术、视觉技术和消费技术的表征符号而已。于是,看这个原本最常见的行为,以某种陌生化的效果呈现出来,它昭示出在消费时代的视觉文化转向中,视觉欲望及其快感已升格为存在的确证方式我看故我在。马格利特式的梦幻镜像已经远去,美女本身作为视觉对象的大眼凝视,既是一个被表现的图像符号,又是一个吁请观众进入视觉消费并享用视觉盛宴的邀请。不但用肉眼去体验,更要用放大镜一类的技术手段去放大体验。

但是,江衡的美人却完全打破了我们的视觉惯式和心理预期:浮华艳丽的背景上,大眼睛小嘴巴的标准美女们鲜艳欲滴,丰满的身躯和水草般丰茂的头发呈现出逼人的青春和美艳。与美人相伴的是鱼、花朵、蝴蝶这些传统仕女图中经常出现的意象,所以单单从题材上看,跟传统仕女图并无分别。在创作于2003年的《消费时代的景观》之10中,甚至出现了非常传统的水墨意境。

Here, I would like to make a comparison by referring to two paintings, from which we will perhaps decipher the complex meaning of Jiang Hengs images of femme fatale. One of the paintings is the Belgian surrealist painter Rene Magrittes The False Mirror (Image I), in this painting, Magritte used the reflection of the eye to represent the realistic image of white clouds in the blue sky. As as surrealist painter, perhaps this painting reveals the dreamlike view found in ones memory, yet are presented in its actual natural form, which can seem to have the somewhat tromp loeil effect. Looking back into Jiang Hengs paintings, Fluttering Butterfly (Image II), the gaze in his femme fatales is filled with curiosity, shes staring into this world. Not only with her won eyes, but uses a magnifying glasses to examine this world, because she wants to see the world with clarity. If Magrittes surrealist gaze reflect the actual view is a sarcastic approach to express imagination, then the gazes of Jiang Hengs femme fatale must be the true expression of utter imagination. In other words, femme fatale as a symbol of material desire of the consumption world, has vividly revealed the truth of todays visual culture: using ones eyes to wager and consume this society. Here, the eyes are highly exaggerated and symbolized. Indeed, with slightest attention to our everyday life, one would notice anything that is attractive is first shown as a spectacle. The entire world has been transformed to images, as Debord stated, the spectacle is caused by facts, in other words, people today are observers. This let to the spectacles monopoly and violence in contemporary society. As people are absorbed in the discussion of the everyday aesthetics, an important fact is revealed in Jiang Hengs work, that is, todays culture is an experiential culture. And the primary approach to experience is seeing, the eyes not only approximate everything, just as the symbolic gaze of these beautiful women, but most importantly, people need to appropriate various techniques to consume such culture visually. The magnifying glass is the representation of various digital technology, communication devices, visual technology and consumption methods. Therefore, viewing, the most common behavior is shown in a rather estranged effect, it displays the visual desire and its gratification has been augmented to ways in which to verify ones existence in the transformation of visual culture of the consumption era I see therefore I am. Magrittes dreamlike mirror is behind us, the beautiful women as the visual object, stares with their big eyes, are visual emblem represented, as well as the invitation to the viewers to enjoy such visual feast. Not only can one experience with their naked eyes, but also with the assistance of the magnifying glass to enlarge such experience.

However, Jiang Hengs beautiful women have completely subverted our visual habits and psychological expectations: under the glamorous background, the standardized large eyes and small lips in women are bright, their voluptuous bodies and the seaweed-like hair are vivid beauties of youth. Accompanying the beauties are fish, flower, butterfly, images that often appear in traditional courtesan paintings. Therefore, thematically speaking, they are not much different from its traditional counterparts. In Landscape of Consumption Era X from 2003, one could even notice the realm attained in traditional ink painting.

至此,我想说,画面上那些大得可怕却又异常真实的美女眼睛,成为一种当下体验之文化的象征。美女及其眼光的双重性质赤裸地呈现出来。作为观者,面对这幅画,我们其实是在看那美女看,凝视那美女的凝视。一方面,美女是作为我们的镜像而存在;另一方面,我们在凝视美女的凝视的同时,也成为美女凝视的镜像,此乃视觉文化的视线互文性的辩证法。说到这里,我们更深刻地理解了梅洛庞蒂的话:看正像一个十字路口一样,是所有方面交汇遇合之点。人们所见和使之被见的东西,在存在之物上的这种进动,就是看本身。

但是,天壤之别的差异恰恰出现在美人的身上:江衡的美人们美则美矣,却是无法消受的美女,不仅不具备温香软玉的温暖质感,取而代之的倒是一股冰冷的、不可接近的机械的味道、物的味道。即使斜眼媚笑,美人们滚圆的玻璃珠子般的眼睛里射出的还是冷冰冰的光,她们的笑容节制而冰冷,仿佛不食人间烟火,与画面鲜艳的糖果色调形成极大的反差,一个冰冷一个火热。美人们虽然青春无敌,但不可触摸不能交谈,没有鲜活的生命气息,正如《蝴蝶飞飞》中的花蝴蝶,虽然鲜艳却缺乏活力缺少生命,只能成为标本。

Therefore, I would like to comment that the scarily large yet real eyes have became the cultural emblem to experience current culture. The dichotomous quality of the femme fatale and their gazes are presented literally. As a viewer, confronted with this painting, we are in fact viewing the gaze of this beauty and stare into her stare. On the one hand, these beautiful women exist as the image in the mirror; on the other hand, while we stare into their stares weve became the image in the mirror of their gaze, this is the dialectics of visual culture. It helps us to further understand Maurice Merleau-Pontys statement, Viewing is like being at the crossroad, it is where all directions meet. What people perceive and made seen, evolves above existence, is the act of viewing.

Yet, the obvious distinction resides in these beauties: Jiang Hengs femme fatales, although beautiful, are yet non-consumable, not only do they lack the warm quality of tame fragrance and preciousness, instead are replaced with the sense of unapproachable mechanical and material flavor. Even their flirtatious smirk, and what transmits from their round glassy eyes are still frigid stares, their smiles are reserved and cold, as if they are unworldly, which contrasts with the bright candy colors of these images. One is frigid, the other warm. Even though these beautiful women are youthful, but they are unreachable and cant communicate with, lacking any liveliness, just as the butterflies in Fluttering Butterfly, although bright in color, but lacks life, which can only be made into samples.

接着,我们来比较另外一幅画,即美国波普的代表人物维塞尔曼的《伟大的美国裸女第59号》。我不知道江衡的美女系列是否受到美国波普艺术的这位代表人物的启发。但比较两人的系列是耐人寻味的。一系列显而易见的相似不必强调了,比如美女系列这种创意本身。我感兴趣是如下发现,在维塞尔曼的美国裸女系列画中,从来就不画眼睛,由此来突出地强调了美女的性感特征;而在江衡的美女系列中(如图三《蝴蝶飞飞17》),性感的艳俗仿佛被瓷娃娃式的玻璃效果间离了,但却凸现了美女的大眼睛及其盛满欲望的眼神。

是的,江衡的美女正是我们时代的标本,物质时代的身体标本。当代文化对身体的强调达到前所未有的重视程度,身体与阶级、身体与权力、身体的意义和策略一直是关注焦点,但身体的肉体化和社会化的功能被统一于消费社会的物化和欲望化,因此观赏性、肉体性、细节性等视觉性特征得到前所未有的强化。

Then lets compare the other painting, the American Pop artist Tom Wesslemanns The Great American Nude 59. I am uncertain whether Jiang Hengs femme fatale series are influenced by this American Pop artist. Although the comparison of these two artists can be mesmerizing. Without mentioning the similarity of their series of works, in terms of their creativity. What interests me is that Wasslemanns Nude series have never painted the eyes onto the women, in order to emphasize the sexy characteristics of women; whereas in Jiang Hengs femme fatale (Fluttering Butterfly 17) the kitsch sexiness seem to be separated from the glassy effect of the ceramic-like dolls, yet highlights the big eyes and her desire filled gaze.

Precisely, Jiang Hengs femme fatales are samples of our time, the body sample of a material era. The focus on the body in contemporary culture has reached an unprecedented height, body and class, body and power, the meaning of the body and strategy have always been the points of focus, but the physicality of the body and its social implications have been generalized as the materialized consumption society and our desire for it. For this reason, the decorative, physical, and details of visual characteristics are enforced.

图三,江衡《蝴蝶飞飞17》(2008)

身体是眼睛(目光、视觉)关注的对象,眼睛的意义当然非同小可。江衡美女最触目惊心的正是她们的眼睛,它们被大写特写,大、圆、亮,几乎是所有画面的中心所在。创作于2007年的《新偶像时代――我漂亮所以我快乐》,其构图创意类似于流传在网络上的美女自拍像,这一类照片因为用手机或相机自拍,对焦不准而常常造成画面的变形,江衡画面中的美女大头、尖脸,正是一副典型的网络大眼娃娃图。在《散落的物品》系列中,眼睛比例被进一步放大,有些甚至出现面对非人类的不适感。回顾传统仕女画中眼睛两个黑点、嘴唇一个红点、眉毛一条线的模糊面目不难发现,仕女图的图式已经发生天翻地覆的变化。

图四,维塞尔曼《伟大的美国裸女59号》(1965)

Body is where the eyes (gaze, visualize) focus, which certainly grant them unusual meanings. The ultimate attraction of these beautiful women are their eyes, they have been over emphasized, they are large, round and bright, occupying the centre attention of every image. The New Idol Time I am beautiful therefore I am Happy from 2007, compositionally resemble to the self-portrait photographs posted on the internet. Since these photos are usually taken with ones cellphone or camera, they can often be out of focus making the image rather distorted. The beautiful women in Jiang Hengs paintings usually have a large head, slim face, a typical cartoon picture found on the internet. In Scattered Objects, the proportion of the eyes are further magnified, some rather non-human characteristics can be uncomfortable. Looking at courtesan ladies in traditional paintings where their eyes are drawn with two black dots, lips as one red dot, and eyebrows as a line, and the undefined contour could tell us the composition for courtesan painting have undergone significant changes.

从绘画传统上说,中国绘画历来强调眼睛是传神写照之阿堵,所谓画龙不点睛的故事是耳熟能详的。维塞尔曼画女不点睛显然有另外的考虑,也许是在他看来,这些裸女已沦落到了只有身而没有心的地步了,因此作为心灵窗口的传神阿堵也就没有必要了,或者说,只有那红唇、乳头等符号,才具有凸现好莱坞式性感特征高度象征意义,眼睛已退化为可有可无之物。江衡的美女系列作品反其道而行之,眼睛乃此系列作品最核心的图像符号。画女不但必点睛,而且以极其夸张方式来点睛。性感的艳俗在江衡笔下的美女那里已经不再是什么新鲜主题,他要表达的也许是眼睛与世界的象征关系:这是一个受到视觉统治的时代,生存的快乐和体验有赖于视觉的把握。由此,江衡的美女系列作品便越出了美式波普艺术的艳俗性感窠臼,切入一个当代文化的视觉主题:看的质询性。王尔德早就指出,看一样东西与看见一样东西全然不同。我们可以天天看世界,却有可能什么也没有看见。江衡美女系列那瞪大的眼睛和富有穿透力的目光,或许是在质询看本身,召唤看的在场,把看径直转变为看见。因为事物存在是因为我们看见它们,我们看见什么,我们如何看见它,这是依影响我们的艺术而决定的。(王尔德语)这不正是画家想要我们明白的真相吗?

批评家杨小彦把江衡的美人们称为物欲偶像,画家自己也创作了名为《偶像时代》和《新偶像时代》的系列作品,可见时尚美女确实成了时代的偶像,但这种说法本身却意味深长、发人深思:是谁的偶像,是画家的,男性的还是时代的?还有,是偶像被物欲化了,还是物欲被偶像化了,或者是物欲与偶像的同质与同构?

Speaking of traditional painting, Chinese paintings have always emphasized the key of passing on the spirit through the eyes, which explains not drawing the eyes to dragons. Wasslemanns women without eyes perhaps originate in other thinking, perhaps in his view, these nude women have became soulless bodies, therefore it is unnecessary to draw the window to their soul, or perhaps only the lips and nipple can best represent the sexual characteristics of Hollywood symbolism, and the eyes became dispensable. Jiang Hengs femme fatale series on the contrary, depict the eyes are its core emblem. It is not only a must to paint the women with eyes, but had to be done in the most exaggerated approach. The sexy kitsch is no longer a novelty under Jiang Hengs brush, what he would like to express is the symbolic relationship between the eyes and the world, where the world is in a visually dominated era, the joy of ones existence and experience relies on ones visual command. Hence, Jiang Hengs femme fatale series transcends the American Pop art kitsch art, but penetrates into the visual topic of modern culture: the inquest of viewing. Wang Erde has pointed out before that, to view an object is entirely different from having seen an object. We look at the world daily, but could have seen nothing at all. The big eyes in Jiang Hengs femme fatale series with piercing gazes is perhaps questioning the act of viewing, calling on the presence of viewing, transforming viewing from seeing. The objects existence is because we have seen them, what we see, how we see it, depends on the art influencing us. Isnt that the truth the artist would like us to know?

The critic Yang Xiaoyan calls Jiang Hengs femme fatale as Idols of Desire, and the artist has also created series of works entitled Idol Time, New Idol Time, in other words, these fashionable women have indeed became the idol of our time. However, such explanation conjures many meanings that prompt one to reflect: whose idols are they, the artists, the mens or that of the time? Has the idol been materialized, or the material desire is idolized, or do the material desire and idolization mutually feed into each other?

作为结语,我想说,画面上那些浸润了看的吁请力量的目光,不断地在打量和考验着观者的目光,质询着我们:你是否感悟到消费时代的视觉体验的真谛了?你是否把看变成了看见?你是否从看见中看到了看的反思性?一如梅洛庞蒂所言:对象在我们眼睛下面,排除并散发出它们的实体,它们直接询问我们的目光,它们考验着我们的身体与世界达成的共同协议。

所谓偶像即当代人欲望的对象化,是个人欲望的转移和替代性满足。江衡的偶像美人该如何归类?她们的艺术形象和社会形象如何定位?传统视觉文本中的女性形象大多分为天使与妖女两类,前者是自强、温柔、奉献的化身,后者则是所谓致命的女性,美丽无比而又冷酷无情,是欲望诱惑的化身,唯美主义者笔下的莎乐美就是这样一个典型。那么,江衡的美女归属何处?她们是理想人格的化身,还是恶之花?显然,她们无法简单归类,她们是我们时代独有的消费美女、消费偶像,是时代的衍生物。女孩们时髦、性感、漂亮,但空洞、冷漠、忧郁、甚至焦虑,这是一代人自我处境的映射,她们是消费文化狂欢时代自我焦虑的时代症候、精神症候的映射和载体。

In summary, I would like to say that the gazes on the images soaked up with invitation constantly approximates and contests the viewers gaze, questioning us whether we have understood the truth from the visual experience of this consumption era? Whether you have transformed seeing to viewing? Have you witnessed the reflexive nature in viewing? As Merleau-Ponty stated, the object is below our eyes, that rejects and disperses their truth form, they question our gaze directly. They challenge the agreement we have reached with our body and this world.

The so-called idol is the object in which people today desire, it transposes and replaces ones desire. What would Jiang Hengs femme fatale categorize to? How would their artistic form and social image be defined? Among the female figures in traditional visual archive, it is usually categorized as angels and witches, the former is self-sufficient, gentle and a giver, where the latter is often the one who would take your life, although extremely beautiful, yet are frigid and senseless, embodying desire and attraction, Salome under the aesthetist is a typical example. So how should Jiang Hengs beautiful women be categorized? Are they embodiments of ideal individual qualities or the flower of evil? Obviously, they cannot be categorized simply, they are intrinsic femme fatale of our consumption era, idols of consumption, the byproduct of this era. The girls are fashionable, sexy, beautiful, but empty, indifferent, melancholic, or even anxious these are reflections of our own situation of our generation, they are the ailments of ones anxiety, psychosis, or carriers of a time of hyped consumer culture.

有意思的是,作为卡通一代最早的参与者之一,江衡的美人仿佛来自童话中的不老仙境:从90年代开始,他的美女们几乎一成不变,一样的大眼睛小嘴巴粉红色的肌肤细腻柔滑,魅力依旧、青春依旧。自古红颜如名将,不许人间见白头的古语在江衡的画里得到最好的体现。

What is interesting is, as a early participant of the cartoon generation, Jiang Hengs beautiful women seem to have originated from the eternal realm of fables: since the 1990s, his beautiful women have had little change, their eyes are big, lips are rosy and small, skin soft and glossy, attractive and youthful. The saying of the beautiful woman is like a noble general, who should not allow others to witness her age are best represented in Jiang Hengs paintings.

因此,我们可以说,江衡的绘画是当代成人童话的视觉版本:唯美的图像、美艳的女郎、永远的青春,满足了人类的幻想欲望,诗意的生活、纯真的年华在视觉奇观中重温和再现,它们仿如能治愈顽疾的丸药,温暖着深陷生活泥淖的成年人。

Therefore, we can say that Jiang Hengs paintings are a visual representations of adult fables: aesthetically pleasing images, beautiful women, eternal beauty that satisfy peoples desire to image, the poetic life, and revisit the simple years through visual phenomenon. They seem to be able to cure chronic disease and provides warmth to those adults in dire conditions of life.

倘若从色彩角度进一步分析更为有趣,糖果色是江衡使用频率最高的色系:粉红、粉蓝、柠檬黄、橙黄,再加上画家喜欢采用的平面平涂没有明暗的技法,营造了具有强烈装饰意味的童话色彩。漂亮的蝴蝶结、苹果、玫瑰、高跟鞋经常出现在画里,它们既具有浓烈的性别意味,也是童话中经常采用的意象。因此,可以说,江衡有意或无意营造了一副洛丽塔式的成人视觉童话。当然,是消费主义的童话,唯美而且欲望。

It is even more interesting to analyze from the angle of colors applied. Candy colors are what Jiang Heng utilize the most: pink, baby blue, lemon, orange, plus the artists favorite flat colors without applying any techniques of dimensionality, to render the fable-like decorative effect. The beautiful butterfly bows, apple, roses, stilettos are often found on these images, they not only display strong gender implications, but motifs often used in fables. Therefore, Jiang Heng has created a fable for adults in Lolita style. Of course, the fable of consumption is both aesthetically pleasing and to be desired.

虽然画家认为自己早已给他的美女打上了中国符号诸如金鱼、月份牌之类的意象,但江衡的美女总体还是国际化的美女,尤其是早期作品,芭比娃娃和日本动漫美少女的影子时常若隐若现。

Even though the artist thought he has stamped Chinese symbolism to his femme fatale with goldfish, new-year calendars and etc, although Jiang Hengs beautiful women are international, especially in his earlier series, the likelihood of Barbie dolls and Japanese anime girls often appear in his composition.

但近年来的作品却开始呈现东方意味,尤其是《蝴蝶飞飞》系列,在秉持一贯的唯美主义风格同时,画面空灵、宁静,带有明显东方式的静谧意味。画里的美人们不仅头发从以往的红色变回了黑色,而且从机械美人变成了生机美人,她们会微笑,甚至带有娇嗔调皮的味道。一幅幅美人蝴蝶图神秘而悠远,于安静中呈现浓艳,艳丽和寂静得到统一,呈现出东方意味。至此,我们可以说,江衡的美人是东方仕女图式的当代表述,在仕女画的长廊里,江衡的转换独树一帜,不可替代。当然,作为一个独具个性、创造力旺盛的艺术家,江衡视觉图式的嬗变及其美学价值值得高度期待和进一步关注。

However, works from recent years began to showcase oriental flavors, especially in the Fluttering Butterfly series, while maintaining his aesthetic style, his imageries are void, tranquil with apparent oriental sense of calmness. The beautiful women in these painting have transformed from having red hair to dark hair, from the robotic beauty to being organic, they smile or even slightly naughty. Images of the beautiful women and butterflies are enigmatic and distant, the richness sips out from tranquility, where glamour and tranquility unites a true oriental flavor. For which we can claim that Jiang Hengs femme fatales are the modern expression of oriental courtesan motif, in the history of the painting on court ladies, Jiang Hengs transformation is unique and irreplaceable. Of course, as a stylistic and creative artist, Jiang Hengs evolution in visual motif and the elevation of aesthetic values awaits our future attention.

摘之《艺术家图像志江衡》

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