中国人民革命战争时期邮票

 油画     |      2020-01-07

二、抗日战争时期(19371945)

  中国人民革命战争时期邮票

Part B. The Period of Anti-Japanese War (1937-1945)

  The Postage Stamps of Chinese Peoples Revolutionary War Period

1937年7月7日,抗日战争全面爆发。中国共产党领导的抗日根据地和不断扩大的解放区相继建立抗日民主政权,并创办抗日邮政或战时邮政,主要任务是为党政军通信联络服务,发行报刊,进行抗日宣传,并根据各地区的条件收寄民众的信件。

  中国人民革命战争时期的邮票,习惯上又称中国解放区邮票(或简称区票)。

Anti-Japanese war took place on 7th July 1937. Anti-Japanese democracy regime was built up in Anti-Japanese bases leading by China Communist Party (CCP) and increasing liberated areas, anti-Japanese Post and War-time Post were also set up, whose main tasks were providing communication service for CCP-Government-Military, issuing newspaper, propagandizing anti-Japanese thinking and civil letter communications.

  The postage stamps of Chinese peoples revolutionary war period are called customarily the stamps of Chinas liberated areas.

1937年11月,华北晋察冀边区建立临时邮政总局,12月发行了抗日根据地第一套邮票《半白日图》(While Half Sun Issue) 1分和5分两种。1938年9月又发行一套《抗战军人纪念邮票》(Soldier of War Against Japanese Aggression),无面值,供军人免费寄信用。这也是解放区邮票中第一套纪念邮票。此外,晋冀鲁豫边区交通总局、山东战时邮务总局以及苏中区、淮南区、盐阜区等邮政机构陆续发行邮票。如:山东清河区战时邮局于1940年10月发行了《清河战时邮票》(Qinghe War-Time Stamps);1944年3月山东战时邮务总局率先在抗日根据地发行毛泽东像邮票;淮南交通总站于1942年底开始发行印有平(挂号信)(Registered letter)、机(机密)(confidential letter)、快(机密快件) (confidential express letter)字样的无面值邮票, 1943年初又增发稿字(报刊通讯员专用)(specially used for news release)和私字(私人信件)(personal letter)邮票,其中稿字邮票为世界珍邮。

  1927年8月1日,在中国共产党领导下,举行了闻名中外的南昌起义。同年九月,毛泽东同志发动秋收起义,率领工农武装走上井冈山,建立了第一个革命根据地,中国新民主主义革命从此进入了土地革命战争时期。

1941年至1943年,日寇疯狂地对抗日根据地进行残酷扫荡,仅冀中区就被分割成2670个小块,但始终也未能割断四通八达的战时交通网。许多根据地邮政人员不顾生命安危,通过半公开交通、秘密交通和武装交通三种方式传递党政军的档、书信、报刊和寄递人民群众的信件。

  On August 1st, 1927, the world-known Nanchang Uprising was held in Nanchang under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. In September of the same year, Mao Zedong launched the Autumn Harvest Uprising, led an armed forces of workers and peasants up to Jing Gang Mountains and set up the first revolutionary base there, signifying that the New-Democratic Revolution had entered upon the phase of the Agrarian Revolutionary War.

In November, 1937 the provisional postal administration was set up in Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei anti-Japanese base of north China, in December the first set stamp White Half Sun was issued with 1 fen and 5 fen denominations. Another set of Soldier of War Against Japanese Aggressionstamp was issued in September 1938, without denomination for military soldiers free use. This is the first set of commemorative stamp of liberated areas. Furthermore, stamps were issued in succession in Shanxi-Hebei-Shandong-Henan general communication bureau, Shandong war-time postal administration and the postal service in Fenral Jiangsu, Huainan and Yanfu areas etc. For example, War-time postal administration in Qinghe district of Shandong province issued Qinghe War-time Stamps in October 1940; Shandong war-time general postal administration firstly issued Mao Zedong portrait stampsin anti-Japanese base areas; Huainan communication bureau issued stamps without denomination on which registered letter, confidential letterorconfidential express letterwere printed in end of 1942, as well stamps used for specially used for news release and personal letterwere issued in beginning of 1943. Stamp forspecially used for news releasewas one of treasure stamps worldwide.

  自第一个革命根据地建立到新中国成立的二十多年中,随着革命根据地和解放区的不断发展壮大,建立了人民政权和邮政通信事业。人民邮政是整个革命事业的一个重要组成部分。

Japan military carried out cruel aggressions against anti-Japanese base areas from 1941 to 1943, up to 2670 small grids was divided in Fenral Hebei area, however the war-time communication nets survived and still worked. Lots of post stuff regardless of personal safety kept delivering CCP-Government-Military letters, documents and newspaper and civil letters via of half-public, confidential and armed communication ways.

  From the time the first revolutionary base came into being to the founding of New China in 1949, 20-odd years passed, during which the peoples political power and postal service were established with the expansion of the revolutionary bases and the liberated areas. The peoples post played an important role in the revolutionary cause.

为了实现统一战线,沟通国民党统治区与解放区的邮政联系,中共中央向国民党政府提出互相通邮的建议。1938年春,陕甘宁边区政府同意将边区邮政机构并人中华邮政管理体系。同年5月,成立边区通讯站。1941年底,中华邮政总局第三军邮总视察林卓午乘邮车到延安,就国共双方互相通邮事宜进行协商,受到毛泽东、周恩来的接见和款待。

  在土地革命战争初期,部分边区建立了赤色邮政,1930年前后发行了赤色邮票,这是我国人民邮政发行邮票的开始。1931年,在中央革命根据地成立了中华苏维埃共和国,1932年成立了中央邮政总局,下设省邮务管理局、县邮局以及县以下的邮站等邮政机构,此后的抗日战争时期和第三次国内革命战争时期,是人民邮政大发展时期。为了通信需要,各解放区都建立了人民邮政,许多地区还发行了邮票。在漫长的革命战争年代,人民邮政发行如此大量的邮票,这在世界邮政史上是罕见的。解放区邮票是在中国人民革命战争的特定历史条件下产生的,从一个侧面忠实地记载了中国革命发展的历程。它不但是中国邮票中的瑰宝,也是我国珍贵的革命文物。

With aim to realize anti-Japanese national united front and strength communications between the Kuomintang (KMT) areas and liberated areas, CCP proposed post mutual communication with KMT government. Shan-Gan-Ning liberated area government agreed to merge liberated post to Chinese post service in beginning of 1938 and border area communication station was set up in May of same year. Head supervisor of third military post of Chinese Post Service, Lin Zhuowu, visited Yanan by post vehicle, had negotiations for issue of mutual post communication between CCP and KMT, got warm reception by Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai.

  In the early days of the Agrarian Revolutionary Civil War, the Red Post was built in some border areas. Around 1930, the Red Stamp was issued, marking the beginning of the stamp issuance by the peoples post. In 1931, the Chinese Soviet Republic was founded in the central revolutionary base and in 1932 the Central D. G. of Posts was set up, embodying provincial head offices, county post offices, and town postal stations. During the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and the Third Revolutionary Civil War, the peoples post expanded greatly. To meet the needs of communications, all the liberated areas built up postal services, many of which issued stamps. It can be said that such a large amount of stamps of liberated areas issued under the specific war conditions are rarely seen in the history of the world post. They trustily recorded from one aspect the development of the Chinese revolution. They are not only Chinas philatelic gems and revolutionary relics, but also pearls of the world philately.

(一)华北

  中国解放区邮票,是在战争环境中印制和发行的,许多邮票的档案散失,因此增添了查证的困难。。从1927年到1950年6月,中国新民主主义革命战争时期,各苏维埃邮政、抗日邮政、解放区邮政共有70多个区、150多个人民邮政机构发行了2300多种邮票(包括包裹印纸,汇兑印纸,邮资明信片,邮资信封,邮简)。这些邮票不仅满足了战时的通信需要,而且还记载了革命历史、鼓舞军民斗志、争取战争胜利,具有鲜明的时代感。

North China

  The stamps of Chinas liberated areas need investigation and verification, for they were printed and issued under the tough war conditions and many of their material and archives were lost. From 1927 to June of 1950,more than 2300 kinds of stamps including parcel post stamps, money order stamps, stamped postcards, stamped envelopes and stamped letter sheets, were issued by 150 postal establishments of more than 70 liberated areas. These stamps were issued but only to meet war-time communication needs also to record revolutionary history, inspire military and civilian morale of strive for the victory of war,with the bright time feeling.

1.半白日图邮票

  一、土地革命战争时期(19271937)

  1. While Half Sun Issue

  Part A. The Period of Agrarian Revolutionary War(19271937)

1937年9月,八路军115师在平型关战役后,以山西省五台山为中心,向察南、冀西挺进,创立北岳抗日根据地。1938年1月10日,晋察冀边区军政民代表大会在北岳阜平县召开,选举产生边区临时行政委员会。在晋察冀边区抗日根据地形成的同时,于1937年冬创办邮政组织,最初称晋冀察边区临时政府,后来改称晋察冀边区临时邮政。

  1927年至1928年,湘赣边界地区建立起最早的赤色邮政。1930年5、6月间,赣西南赤色邮政总局发行了解放区的第一套邮票。据中华邮政档案记载:票系方形薄纸,盖以红朱,略似图记,四周及中央刻有星形,上有赤色邮政一分等字样,至今未见实物。10月,该局第二次发行赤色邮票,有实寄封存世。同一时间,闽西交通总局发行了一套2种锤镰五星图赤色邮票,并售出共4200多枚。此后至1931年12月,湘赣边省、赣东北、江西、湘鄂西等革命根据地也先后建立了赤色邮政管理机构,发行了赤色邮政邮票。

1937年12月至1938年1月间,晋冀察边区临时邮政发行华北解放区首套邮票 半白日图邮票,1分(蓝色)、5分(蓝色与黑色),油印版印刷,无齿孔。目前已知5分邮票存世仅5枚(图2-1)。

  From 1927 to 1928, Hunan-Jiangxi Border Area built the earliest red post. Between May and June, 1930, the first set of stamps of liberated areas was issued by Red Postal Administration of Southwest Jiangxi. According to the Chinese postal service records, the stamp was square thin sheet of paper, printed in red, just like seal, around and central of the design engraved with star, with Chinese characters of Chinese Red Posts and denomination of 1 fen, but its matter have not found so far. In October of the same year, Red Postal Administration of Southwest Jiangxi issued again stamps of red posts. This set of stamps only has been seen on the cover. At the same time a set of 2 stamps of red posts with hammer, sickle and five-star design was issued by Communication Bureau of West Fujian, more than 4200 stamps were sold. Until December of 1931, some red postal administrations were set up, and released red posts stamps in the revolutionary base areas of Hunan-Jiangxi Border Province, Northeast Fujian, Jiangxi and West Hunan-Hubei and so on.

In September 1937 after Pingxingguan Battle, the 115 division of Eighth Route Army marched forward to South Chahar and West Hebei with fener of Mount Wutai Shanxi province, and built up Beiyue anti-Japanese base area. Military-Civil representative congress in Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei base area was held in Fuping county Beiyue area, base area temporary administrative committee was generated with election. In the meantime of Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei anti-Japanese base area setup, post organization was set up in winter of 1937, named initially as Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Area Temporary Government and afterwards named as Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Border Area Temporary Post.

  中国工农红军1934年10月长征北上抗日前,曾在长江南北建立15个根据地。根据地交通方便,大部份都曾建立过名称不同的邮政交通机构。据现有史料和实物,可证实,其中有六个分布在江西、福建、浙江、湖南、湖北等省的根据地和地处江西瑞金的中央苏区,先后发行过邮票,也就是(1)赣西南Southwest Jiangxi,(2)闽西West Fujian,(3)湘赣Hunan-Jiangxi,(4)江西Jiangxi,(5)赣东北Northeast Fujian,(6)湘鄂西West Hunan-Hubei,(7)中央苏维埃Central Soviet Area,(8)陕西苏区Shanxi Soviet Area。苏区共有8个根据地发行邮票。

Between December, 1937 and January, 1938, Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei border area temporary post issued first set stamp in north China liberated area White Half Sun Issue stamp, 1 fen par value (Blue) and 5 fen (Blue and black), printed in mimeograph way, imperforation. Only five pieces of 5 fen stamp have been known. (Fig.2-1)

  Before the long march going north for the anti-Japanese in October 1934, the Chinese Workers and Peasants Red Army set up 15 bases in the Yangtze River on both sides. The transportation of bases was convenient and set up mostly postal transportation agency with different names. According to existing historical data and matter, 6 bases were distributed on Jiangxi, Fujian, Zhejiang, Hunan, Hubei provinces and Central Soviet Area were successively issued stamps, i.e. (1)Southwest Jiangxi,(2)West Fujian,(3)Hunan-Jiangxi,(4)Jiangxi,(5)Northeast Fujian,(6)West Hunan-Hubei,(7)Central Soviet Area,(8)Shaanxi Soviet Area. There were eight revolution bases issued stamps.

(图2-1)

  苏区邮票版别共有三种

2.第一版全白日图邮票

  There are three kinds of prints of Soviet Area stamps.

  1. The First Print While Full Sun Issue

  (1)中央版。中华苏维埃邮政发行,邮票上印苏维埃邮政。

1938年1月,晋察冀边区临时行政委员会成立后,晋冀察边区临时邮政随之成立,2月发行第一版全白日图邮票(图2-2),全套2枚:1分(暗紫色)、2分(红棕色),石板印于有条纹报纸,图幅21.524mm,币值为法币,无齿孔。

  (1) Central Print

图2-3所示实寄封原为中华邮政特制印简由河北乐城寄往平山县销有河北乐城村镇信差戳,后又加贴全白图1分5枚销河北郭苏镇1939年4月29日戳二次使用,为目前仅见,极为珍罕。

  Issued by Central Soviet Area with inscription of Soviet Area Posts

After Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Area Temporary Administrative Committee set up in Jan.1938, Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Area Temporary Post was set up thereupon, the first print White Full Sun stamp was issued in February (Fig. 2-2), including 2 stamps: 1 fen denomination (dark purple) and 2 fen denomination (red brown), stone plate was printed on newspaper with stripes, with size 21.524mm, currency value: legal tender, imperforation.

  (2)地方版。由上1-6根据地发行,邮票上铭文有赤色二字(只有赣东北的江西花卉图邮票无赤色二字)。

As the cover showed in Fig. 2-3, it was initially specific letter sheet of Chinese Post Service mailed from Lecheng Hebei province to Pinshang county stamped with Hebei Lecheng postmark, afterwards 5 pieces of 1 fen stamps were pasted, second postmark by Guosu town Hebei province on April 29th 1939. Only one has been found, extremely rarity.

  (2) Local Print

(图2-2)(图2-3)

  Issued by the above 1 to 6 bases, with the inscription of Red Posts (except Jiangxi Flower Issue)

3.抗战军人纪念邮票第一套解放区纪念邮票

  (3)仿中央版。江西莲花县誊写版油印邮票两种。1分主图为地球,3分图案正中有一五角星,二者上方均横列苏维埃邮政,闽浙赣省邮政管理局。

  1. Soldier of War Against Japanese Aggression - The first set of commemorative stamp of Chinas liberated areas

  (3) Imitate Central Print

1938年9月,晋察冀边区临时邮政,为优待抗日战时通信,特发行一种不注明面值的大型纪念邮票(图2-4),由边区政府免费发给抗战军人使用。邮票图案为抗战军人持枪跑步的前进图,图幅34.2528.25mm,无齿孔。石版印于白色洋纸上,大红色。此票虽不印面值,但在军人肩荷的子弹带上,暗藏有一个阿拉伯文的5字。

  There are two kinds of stamps sprinted by stencil in mimeograph. The design of 1 fen denomination was globe, the central of design of 3 fen denomination was a five-star, which top of both design arranged in horizontal line the inscription of Soviet Posts and Fujian-Zhejiang-Jiangxi Province Postal Administration.

In September 1938, Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Border Area Temporary Post was set up, for providing priority to military post in anti-Japanese time, a commemorative stamp without denomination was issued (Fig.2-4), border area government distributed the stamp to anti-Japanese soldiers for free use. Pattern in stamp showed anti-Japanese soldiers holding the gun and marching forward, with size 34.2528.25mm, imperforation. Stone plate was imprinted on white paper, full red color. No denomination on this stamp but figure5was hidden on the bullet bag the soldier held.

  苏维埃时期,在8个革命根据地发行邮票17套,40余种。

该邮票的图案是先由高晋材绘制一个卧姿军人的草图,未被采用,又由张述改画了现在的图案。此票印制于山西五台县境内的射虎川,以石印印制。

  In soviet posts period, total 17 sets of more than 40 stamps were issued by 8 revolution bases.

1938年秋,晋察冀边区行政委员会同意撤销边区临时邮政,由中华邮政接办边区邮政,12月,晋察冀边区临时邮政所发行的邮票停用,停用后的邮票全部交到设在西安的中华邮政第三军邮视察段,后来转送到重庆中华邮政总局。

  (一)赤色邮政

由于抗战军人纪念邮票刚刚开始发行,便赶上中华邮政接办,为此绝大多数邮票未来得及出售使用,目前所见未使用的新票较多,旧票较少,实寄封更少。

  Chinese Red Posts

The pattern of the stamp initially from Gao Jincai who created the draft showing a soldier with prone position, but this was not adopted, current pattern was created by Zhang Shu. This stamp was printed by stone plate in Shehuchuan in Wutai county Shanxi province.

  1.赤色邮政龙头邮票实寄封

In autumn of 1938, Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Border Area Temporary Committee agreed to repeal area temporary post, succeeded by Chinese Post Service and created area post, the stamps issued by temporary post were ceased in December, stamps after ceasing were submitted to third military post of Chinese Post Service which set up in Xian, afterwards transferred to General Post Office of Chinese Post Service in Chongqing.

  1. The Cover with First Stamp of Chinese Red Posts

Due to the commemorative stamp was just issued shortly and border area temporary post just succeeded by Chinese Post Service, large majority stamps were not sold and used, the unused stamps have been seen more than used ones, the covers with them few.

  赣西南赤色邮政邮票是最早发行的解放区邮票。1930年10月,赣西南赤色邮政总局发行邮票,图案为8字形花框,其内直列赣西南赤色邮政七字,两上角为面值数位。石板印于薄白纸,无齿孔。目前未见新票存世,但有15枚贴该邮票的实寄封存世。这15件实寄封的存世,主要是当年在通过国统区时被国民党扣查下来而保存至今的。在江西邮务管理局档案中记载了这15个封扣查的全过程,1930年8月8日,赣州市邮局局长密报,有部分本省兴国等地苏维埃政府发出邮件,封皮上贴有红军私造邮票信件,同一时间,于都、吉安邮局也发现贴用红军自制之赤色邮票的信件。

(图2-4)

  Stamps of Chinese Red Posts of Southwest Jiangxi were the earliest liberated stamps. In October 1930, Red Postal Administration of Southwest Jiangxi issued stamps, which the design was character pattern frame in 8, with 7 Chinese characters of Red Posts of Southwest Jiangxi arranged in vertical line, with the denomination on two top corners. They were printed by stone plate on white thin paper, imperforated. Unused stamps have not found, only 15 covers with this set of stamps have found so far. These 15 covers could save up to now, the reason that they were detained through the KMT-controlled area at that time. The whole process detained 15 covers were recorded in the file of Postal Service Administration of Jiangxi, which on August 8, 1930, director general of Ganzhou post office received a tip-off that the Soviet government of the part areas of Xingguo of this province sent some letters with Stamps of Chinese Red Posts, at the same time some same ones were found in Yudu and Jian post offices.

4.唐县临时邮政邮票

  目前赣西南赤色邮政邮票区封中国邮票博物馆藏5件,李曙光藏1件,日本水原明窗藏4件,香港杨乃强藏2件,孙蒋涛藏1件(图1-1),另有2件日本古庄昭夫旧藏,已转入国内藏家手中,共15件,民间藏10件,国家5件,目前每件市值在三百万以上

  1. Stamps of Tangxian Provisional Posts

  Now the 15 covers with stamps of Chinese Red Posts of Southwest Jiangxi have known. There are 5 covers collected by the museum of Chinese stamps, one cover collected by Li Shuguang, 4 covers collected by Japanese Meiso Mizuhara, 2 covers collected by Hong Kong N.C. Yang, one cover collected by Sun Jiangtao (Fig.1-1). Other 2 covers collected original by Japanese Akio Furusho, now have collected by inland philatelist. Every one value of RMB is more than three million yuan.

1938年2月14日在抗日烽火中诞生的唐县临时邮政邮票,至今已经近80年了。唐县临时邮政设在当时县抗日民主政府所在地北店头村内贾文田家中。唐县临时邮政辟有通达县内各区和冀西各县的邮路,发行临时邮政邮票,实行邮资寄递,办理平信、挂号、印刷品、平快、明信片等邮政业务。1981年10月,日本著名集邮家水原明窗Meiso Mizuhara先生在北京举办中国邮票藏品展览,曾展出珍贵的唐县临时邮政邮票和当时唐县使用的一些邮政单据。这些都说明唐县临时邮政有着比较完备的邮政规章和业务制度。唐县临时邮政邮票一套2枚,为壹分,伍分两种面值。由于战事物质条件的限制,这套邮票构图简单,且系木戳手工盖印,用纸与印制都极为粗糙。

  (图1-1)

Stamps of Tangxian Provisional Posts were issued in anti-Japanese time on February 14th 1938, nearly 80 years till today. Tangxian Provisional Posts was set at home of Jia Wentian in Beidiantou village where the county anti-Japanese democracy government was set up. Tangxian Provisional Posts set up the postal routes leading to all districts in the county and counties in West Hebei, issued provisional stamps and delivery with post fee, services were provided such as ordinary, register mails, printing matter, express mails and post cards etc. In October 1981 the well know Japanese philatelist Mr. Meiso Mizuhara held the China stamp collections exhibition in Beijing, the precious Tangxcian Provisional Posts stamps and some post documents used in Tangxian were showed. All those showed that Tangxian Provisional Posts had build up complete postal regulations and business systems. Stamps of Tangxian Provisional Posts include 2 stamps, 1 fen and 5 fen denomination. As limited by poor material conditions during war time, this set stamp has simple patterns, with wooden postmark and stamped by hand, paper used and printing were very crude.

  (Fig.1-1)

1937年七七事变后,日军侵入我华北腹地,国民党军队弃地南逃,中华邮政员工溃散,邮政机构撤销。8月下旬,国共两党就红军改编和作战任务举行谈判,中共方面提出将晋、察、冀、绥四省交界地的涞源、五台、浑源、平山、唐县等31各县划为红军活动的地区。中共中央根据《抗日救国十大纲领》和与国民党达成的协议,将中国工农红军主力改编为国民革命军第八路军。次年1月10日,晋察冀边区军政民代表大会在阜平城内召开,1月15日大会通过宣言和通电,晋察冀边区临时行政委员会宣告成立。《宣言》明确指出,边区行政委员会的实际内容是贯彻抗日与真正的民主,是民族统一战线的政权形式,它包含着各党、各派、各阶层及各种民族分子,在行政体系上,也是中华民国的地方政府。边区军政民代表大会后,经阎锡山转呈国民政府行政院和军事委员会,1938年1月31日正式得到国民政府行政院和军事委员会的承认和批准,这标志着晋察冀边区抗日民主政权的建立和边区抗日民族统一战线的形成与确立。

  2.闽西赤色邮票

After July 7th Incident in 1937, Japanese armies invaded to inner North China, the KMT armies abandoned north China and escaped towards south, stuff in Chinese Post Service were dismissed and post organization was repealed. In the last ten-day of August, negotiation was held between the CCP and the KMT for Red army adaption and military task topics, Communist Party proposed to define Laiyuan, Wutai, Hunyuan, Pingshan and Tanxian etc. in total 31 counties located on border area of Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei-Sui 4 provinces as red armys areas. Based on Anti-Japanese and country saving ten creeds and agreements achieved with National Party, head of Communist Party adapted Chinese worker-peasant red army to National revolution the Eighth Route Army. Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei area military-political-civil representative congress was held in Fuping city in January 1938, declarations were generated and approved by congress on 15th January, Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Area Provisional Administration Committee was set up. Clearly defined in the Declarations that, main tasks of area administration committee were implementation of anti-Japanese and the real democracy, regime form of National united front, it included all parties, groups, stratums and nationalists, form political system, it was the regional government of Republic of China. After the congress, via submitted by Yan Xishan to National government administration and Military committee, be approved by National government administration and Military committee on 31st Jan. 1938, which stands for foundation of Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei area anti-Japanese democracy regime and area anti-Japanese National united front.

  2. Stamps of West Fujian Red Posts

被中共中央誉为敌后模范的抗日根据地及统一战线的模范区的晋察冀抗日根据地,是中国共产党在敌后创建的第一个抗日根据地。晋察冀边区行政委员会又是敌后抗日根据地中唯一得到国民政府行政院和军事委员会正式承认的边区政府。为适应战时军民通信的需要,1937年11月末开始筹建边区临时邮政,12月份发行半白日图邮票,次年1月边区临时行政委员会成立,2月边区临时邮政总局续又发行全百日图邮票,同时唐县临时邮政也于1938年初成立,并于2月14日发行临时邮政邮票。这些都是抗日战争时期我革命根据地最早发行的邮票。半白日图票、全白日图票与唐县临时邮政邮票,构图风格极为相似,或取白日徽一角,或用白日徽主图,尤其唐县临时邮政壹分票,主图为全白日和两个五角星,星日相映,这反映了当时国难当头、抗战初始、国共合作业已形成的历史背景。

  1929年春夏,毛泽东、朱德率红四军从湘赣边界(即井冈山地区)入闽,转战赣南、闽西,占领了永定、上杭、龙岩等县。以三县为中心,北连赣南,西接粤东,开辟了新区,并于1930年3月建立闽西苏维埃政府,后于1932年3月改为福建省苏维埃政府,成为苏维埃中央革命根据地的重要组成部分。

图2-5为唐县临时邮政邮票和当时唐县使用的邮政排单。

  Spring and summer of 1929, the fourth red army led by Mao Zedong and Zhu De marched Fujian from Hunan-Jiangxi border area, fought South Jiangxi and West Fujian, attacked and occupied Yongding, Shanghang, Longyan counties. The three counties were as the fenre, joined South Jiangxi at north, joined East Guangdong at west, opened up new liberated area, built Soviet Government of West Fujian in March 1930, following was changed into Soviet Government of Fujian Province, and became an important part of Soviet Central Revolutionary Base Area.

Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei anti-Japanese base area which was praised by Communist Party as model of anti-Japanese base and National united front was the first anti-Japanese base in enemy rear areas. Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei administration committee was the only one area government which was admitted by national government administration and military committee in all base areas. In order to fulfill demands of military and civil communication in war time, border area provisional post was set up in end of November 1937, Half White Sun stamp was issued in December, area provisional administration committee was set up in January following year, Full White Sun stamp was issued in February by area provisional post, meanwhile Tangxian Provisional Posts was set up in beginning 1938 and provisional stamps was issued on 14th February, these were the earliest stamps issued in revolution base areas during anti-Japanese war. Half White Sun stamp, Full White Sun stamp and Tangxian Provisional Post stamp were with similar patterns, take part of white sun badge or main part of white sun badge, especially for 1 fen denomination stamp of Tangxian provisional stamp, main parts of pattern included full white sun and two pentacles, which represents of the history background that in beginning phase of anti-Japanese war, county in deep danger, cooperation between Communist Party and National Party was formed.

  闽西交通总局,早在1930年的下半年即建立,并于10月发行了闽西赤色邮政邮票2种,邮票上印有赤色邮政字样,以苏维埃徽志为图案的邮票,图为倒背的镰锤。1931年1月,闽西交通总局又发行了一套镰锤正置的赤色邮花邮票。邮票平版石印于加厚毛边纸上。设计者为张庭竹,当地龙岩人,1927年毕业于上海新华艺术学校,1929年参加革命,还曾设计过钞票。邮票面值以铜元计值,单位为片。片是枚的闽西方言。

Fig. 2-5 shows stamps of Tangxian provisional posts and post arrange list used in Tangxian that period.

  Communication Bureau of West Fujian was built on the second half of 1930, and released a set of 2 stamps of West Fujian Red Posts in October, with the inscription of Red Posts. Stamps had soviet emblem as main design, and hammer and sickle of soviet emblem was mirror image. In January 1931, Communication Bureau of West Fujian released again a set of 2 stamps with Red Stamps, and hammer and sickle of soviet emblem was not mirror image. The stamps were printed by lithography on thicken paper made from bamboo, designed by Zhang Tingzhu, which he was Longyan local people, graduated from Shanghai Xinhua art school, participated in revolution in 1929, designed money. The name of currency was copper currency. Denomination unit was 片pian. 片pian was West Fujian dialect of 枚piece.

(图2-5)

  邮票共三种,其面值数字写法均不一样:

(二)山东战邮

  There were 3 kinds of stamps that the denomination figure and style of writing were different.

Shandong War-Time Posts

  2片写作贰片。4片写作四片。4片写作肆片。方连价格120万(图1-2)。

5.总局之章邮票

  2 pian was written as 贰片, 4 pian was written as 四片 or 4 pian was written as 肆片. The price of block of four is 1.2 million yuan so far (Fig.1-2).

  1. Seal of D.G. of Posts Stamps

  福建省博物馆也藏有此票,系1931年由农民协会保存下来的。永安县农民张暖祥捐献出赤色邮花(94)大方连邮票,在国家博物馆收藏。

1942年2月7日,山东省战时邮务总局成立后,3月间请山东省战时工会文书科张剑、韩寓吾及王济让等人设计了山东战时邮政邮票。据张剑回忆:山东地图邮票是根据当时山东所辖地区的缩影设计的,地图周围抗日烽火光芒四射,标志着山东的抗日有着光明的前程;火炬图邮票,象征着山东人民在中国共产党的领导下,高举抗日救亡的革命火炬奋勇前进;战士冲锋图和骑兵图邮票,生动的表现了抗日战士持枪冲锋和骑兵战士跃马扬刀冲向敌人,英勇杀敌的英姿;时代车轮图的邮票,体现了抗日军民驾驭抗日历史车轮滚滚向前。

  This set of stamps is collected yet in the Museum of Fujian Province, which were saved by local peasant association since 1931. Block of 94 of Red Stamps donated by Yongan county peasant Zhang Luanyang was collected in the Country Museum.

Shandong war-time post office was set up on February 7th 1942, the post office invited Zhang Jian, Han Yuwu and Wang Jirang etc. from amanuensis section of war-time labor union Shandong province to design the Shandong war-time post stamp. As memory from Zhang Jian: the stamp with pattern of Shandong map was designed based on epitomes from Shandong domination areas, anti-Japanese balefire flashing round the map, which stands for bright perspective of anti-Japanese in Shandong; the stamp with pattern of Hand holding torch, stands for Shandong people march forward full of courage holding the revolution torch of anti-Japanese and country saving under leading by CCP; Soldier charging stamp and Cavalry man stamp vividly represented anti-Japanese soldiers holding submachine guns and cavalry soldiers rushing at enemies, heroism was fully showed; Stamp with pattern of times wheel, represented anti-Japanese soldiers and folk marching forward with steering anti-Japanese historical wheels.

  该邮票使用到1932年4月30日,苏维埃中央政府统一邮票、邮资标准为止。

据《中国解放区邮票史》华东卷(上)介绍说:山东战时邮政加盖总局之章邮票共5枚,有山东地图(米红)1分;战士冲锋图(绿)2分;火炬图(蓝)5分;时代车轮图(浅黄)1角;骑兵图(深棕)5角。但是查遍《中国邮票全集》解放区卷和《中华人民共和国邮票图鉴》(解放区)(香港杨乃强编)均无此票,只《中国人民革命战争时期邮票目录》中有4枚,即1分、2分、5分及5角(本组邮票尚有1角一种。由此看来这枚邮票并未发行,仅在档案中有记录)。

  Until Soviet central government unified postage standard on April 30, 1932, this set of stamp were used.

图2-6列出的山东地图(米红)1分邮票存世仅6枚,火炬图(蓝)5分双连存世仅2件。

  (图1-2)

As information from East China volume of Stamp history in China liberated areas: Seal of D.G. of Posts Stamps from Shandong war-time posts included 5 pieces, 1 fen denomination with pattern of Shandong map (red); 2 fen denomination with pattern of Soldier charging (green); 5 fen denomination with pattern of Hand holding torch (blue); 10 fen denomination with pattern of Man pushing large wheel(light yellow); 50 fen denomination with pattern of Cavalry man (dark brown). But this set of stamps cannot be found in liberated area volume of China stamp collections and Peoples Republic of China stamp picture collections (liberated area, edited by Yang Naiqiang from Hongkong). Only in Stamp catalog in Chinese people revolution war-time four pieces were found, namely 1 fen, 2 fen, 5 fen and 50 fen denominations. Based on that, 10 fen denomination stamps did not issued and only recorded in archives.

  (Fig.1-2)

Only six stamps of 1 fen denomination (red) with pattern of Shandong map, and two stamps of 5 fen denomination (blue) with pattern of Hand holding torch have been found. (Fig. 2-6 )

  3.湘赣边省赤色邮票

(图2-6)

  3. Stamps of Hunan-Jiangxi Border Province Red Posts

6.第一版毛泽东像邮票

  1931年7月,中央决定建立湘赣省。当年10月8日,湘赣省委成立,继之省苏维埃政府亦成立,驻地在永新县。湘赣省又称湘赣边区、湘赣边省。

  1. The First Print Mao Zedong Issue

  In July of 1931, the Soviet central government decided to set up the Hunan-Jiangxi Province. On October 8, 1931, the Hunan-Jiangxi provincial party committee was built up, following the Soviet Government was also built and was located at Yongxin County. The Hunan-Jiangxi Province was called as Hunan-Jiangxi Border Area.

1943年春,山东抗战局势开始好转,共产党领导的八路军开始局部反击,同年3、4月间,毛泽东主席、朱德总司令对山东作了一系列重要指示,7月,罗荣恒同志着文号召学习毛泽东思想。《大众日报》发表题为学习毛泽东思想、组织群众大多数的社论。在党中央、毛泽东主席的正确领导下,山东抗日根据地一年来作战和生产都获可喜成绩,先后解放部分县城,抗日根据地达900多万人口,毛泽东主席的光辉形象和威望深入人心,为全党和全国军民所崇敬。

  湘赣边省中华赤色邮政总局,局址设在永新县(现为永新县乐川镇公安派出所驻地),于1931年9月15日前发行了名为湘赣省赤色邮票,计三种:1分、2分和8分(图1-3),图案均为五角星、镰刀、铁锤。用至1932年4月30日苏维埃中央政府统一苏区邮政为止,仅约半年时间。整套市值200万元。

1944年3月,山东省战时邮政总局印制了山东战邮毛泽东像(一版)邮票3枚。其颜色、面值是:(蓝)5分、(绿)1角、(深棕)5角,由胶东战邮管理局委托胶东《大众报》社印刷厂铜版印刷。邮票为白报纸,图幅1627mm,全张20(45)枚,无齿孔,北海币。邮票下端书写山东战邮。

  Chinese Red Postal Administration of Hunan-Jiangxi Border Province was located at Yongxin County, and released 3 kinds of 1 fen, 2 fen, and 8 fen stamps (Fig.1-3) with the inscription of Hunan-Jiangxi Border Province Red Stamp. Their design was five-star, hammer and sickle. Until soviet area posts were unified by Soviet Central Government on April 30, 1932, they were used, only about half a year. The price of whole set of stamp about is 2 million yuan so far.

发行毛泽东像邮票,表达了广大军民对伟大领袖的热爱。这是全国解放区发行的邮票上首次出现毛泽东肖像。

  湘赣边省赤色邮票,曾一度被认为是苏区发行的第一套邮票。近年经考证,它发行于1931年9月以前,而不是1929年,晚于赣西南、闽西等根据地的邮票发行时间。

图2-7为山东战邮一版毛泽东像(蓝)5分全张票,以及使用实例。

  Red Stamps of Hunan-Jiangxi Border Province were once considered as the first set of stamp issued by Soviet Area. In recent years of textual research it was issued before September of 1931, but not 1929, posterior to issuing time of stamp of Southwest Jiangxi and West Fujian.

War situation turned to getting better in Shandong in spring of 1943, the Eighth Route Army leading by Communist Party started to beat back locally, in March and April this year, Chairman Mao Zedong and commander-in-chief Zhu De gave series important instructions to Shandong, in July comrade Luo Ronghuan wrote articles and called on to learn Mao Zedong ideology. Folks daily issued leading article with theme of learning Mao Zedong ideology and Unite majority of folks. Under correct leading by Central Communist Party and Chairman Mao, huge achievements were got on battle and foodstuff production in Shandong anti-Japanese base area in the past year, some counties were liberated, population more than 9 million in liberated base area, brilliant image and prestige of Chairman Mao goes deeply in peoples heart, be esteemed by whole Communist Party and people nationwide.

  (图1-3)

In March 1944, Shandong War-time Postal Administration issued Shandong war-time post stamps in total 3 pieces with pattern of portrait of Mao Zedong (first print). The color and denominations are: 5 fen (blue), 10 fen (green), 50 fen (dark brown), the stamps were authorized by Jiaodong War-time Post Administration Bureau to Jiaodong the Public Newspaper printing house, printed with copper plate. Stamps are white newspaper, size 1627mm, in total 20 pieces per plate (4 x 5), imperforation, Beihai currency. Shandong War-time Post marked on bottom of stamps.

  (Fig.1-3)

The issuing of stamps with pattern of portrait of Mao Zedong, which expressed peoples love and respect to the great leader. This is the first time that portrait of Mao Zedong appears on stamps in liberated areas nationwide.

  4.湘鄂西赤色邮票

Fig. 2-7 shows that the whole sheet of first print of 5 fen blue stamps with Mao Zedong portrait issued by Shandong War-time Post, and its usages.

  4. Stamps of West Hunan-Hubei Red Posts

(图2-7)

  1930年7月,贺龙、周逸群领导的红四军与红六军在湖北省公安县会师,组成红二军团,与洪湖根据地连成一片,成为湘鄂西根据地。建立了湘鄂西省委、省苏维埃政府。湘鄂西省赤色邮务总局亦于1930年秋成立,不久即发行邮票一枚,面值1角(图1-4),图案为地图,其中央有五角星、镰刀、锤子和旗帜,并印有湘鄂西省赤色邮务总局全称。

7.牛耕、掷弹图邮票

  In July 1930, the Fourth Red Army led by He long and Sixth Red Army led by Zhou Yiquan joined forces in Gongan Gounty of Hubei Province, formed the Second Red Legion, and together with Honghu base as one, became West Hunan-Hubei Revolutionary Base. Provincial Party Committee and Soviet Government of West Hunan-Hubei were built. Red Postal Administration of West Hunan-Hubei Province was set up in the autumn of 1930, following issued a stamp of denomination 1 jiao(Fig. 1-4). The design of stamp was map, with five-star, hammer, sickle and flag in central, and printed with the inscription of Red Postal Administration of West Hunan-Hubei Province.

  1. Ploughing and Throwing Grenade Issue

  目前见到的此种邮票均为新票,且多为单枚,未见信销票和实寄封。

1944年,由于几年来日寇频繁扫荡,敌伪顽的经济封锁,山东抗日根据地面临许多困难。根据党中央发展生产、保证供给的指示和号召,全体军民自己动手,丰衣足食,发展生产,克服困难。

  Now only unused stamps and mostly single one have been seen, not found used stamps and covers.

1944年11月,山东省战时邮务总局印制发行山东战邮耕牛图、掷弹图邮票各1枚。耕牛图邮票绿色1角,掷弹图邮票橘黄色1元。图幅2120和2321mm,无齿孔,北海币,平版,白报纸。邮票右边书写山东战邮,左边书写面值。这两枚邮票反映了抗日军民一面战斗,一面生产、克服困难的战斗历史。

  (图1-4)

图2-8为该套邮票不同刷色,以及1元使用实例。

  (Fig.1-4)

In 1944, due to Japanese armys frequent mop-up in past several years and economic blockade by puppetry, lots difficulties had to be faced by Shandong anti-Japanese base area. According to instructions from Central Communist Party enhance production and ensure providing, the people overcome difficulties and evdently enhanced production, closing and foodstuff were well ensured.

  (二)苏维埃邮政

In November of 1944, Shandong War-time Postal Administration issued Shandong war-time post ploughing and throwing grenade stamps, 1 piece for each. Ploughing stamp with 10 fen denomination and green color, throwing grenade stamp with 1 yuan denomination and orange color. With size 2120 and 2321mm, imperforation, Beihai currency, lithographic plate,while newspaper. Shandong War-time Posts was written on right side of stamp and denomination marked on left side. The 2 pieces stamps represented the struggle history of anti-Japanese people keep fighting while keep production and difficulty overcoming.

  Chinese Soviet Posts

Fig. 2-8 shows different printing colors of this set stamp, and cover with 1 yuan denomination stamp.

  5.苏维埃邮票

(图2-8)

  5. Soviet Stamps

8.胶东区加盖胶东暂作改值邮票

  在国民党军重重围剿下,1931年11月7日,中华苏维埃共和国临时中央政府在江西瑞金成立。1932年5月1日,建立了中华苏维埃共和国中央邮政总局,制定颁布了邮政暂行章程和一系列规章制度,健全了邮政组织机构和邮路干线,统一了苏区邮政资费标准,发行了铭记为苏维埃邮政的邮票。接着,江西、福建、闽赣、粤赣、湘赣、闽浙赣等苏区先后成立了邮政管理局,各县和交通要道设邮局,先后开办了普通信函、快信、汇兑、报纸、寄递等多种业务。

  1. Stamps Overprinted with Jiaodong Temporarily Used for and Surcharge of Jiaodong Area

  Under the encirclement and suppression of the Kuomintang army, on November 7, 1931 the Temporary Central Government of Chinese Soviet Republic was built in Ruijin of Jiangxi. On May 1, 1932, Central Postal Administration of Chinese Soviet Republic was set up. The provisional postal service constitution, and many rules and regulations were formulated and promulgated, postal institutional framework and postal routes were perfect, postal charges of soviet areas were unified, and stamps with the inscription of Chinese Soviet Posts were issued. Following postal administrations of Jiangxi, Fujian, Fujian-Jiangxi, Guangdong-Jiangxi, Hunan-Jiangxi and Fujian-Zhejiang-Jiangxi soviet areas were successively built, many post offices of counties and traffic thoroughfares were set up, multiple postal operation of ordinary letters, express, remittance, newspaper, delivery and so on were opened one after another.

1944年5-8月,胶东战时邮务管理局进行一次邮资调整。由于新的邮票尚未印出,调资后所需面值邮票缺乏,于是将山东战时邮务总局发行的山东省战时邮政邮票加字改值6枚,以应急需。

  从1931年底到1934年10月红军开始长征时止,在这近三年的时间里,曾发行苏维埃邮政邮票10多种。

图2-9为贴加盖胶东暂作改值邮票5分(紫)邮票1枚印刷品裸寄邮件,销莱阳1944年9月8日战时邮戳,十分罕见,存世不超过3件。

  From the end of 1931 to October 1934, before beginning of red army the long march, nearly three years, more than 10 kinds of stamps with the inscription of Soviet Posts were issued.

图2-10为山东烟台寄牙前县实寄封,贴加盖胶东暂作改值邮票1元(红)双连,销烟台,1945年2月10日邮戳。已知存世不超过5件。

  (1)地球红旗图邮票

During May to August in 1944, Jiandong War-time Postal Administration made a revision for postal fee. Due to new stamps had not been issued yet, the needed denomination stamps were lack after postal fee adaption, 6 pieces surcharge stamps were made overprinted on stamps issued by Shandong War-time Postal Administration, to fulfill urgent demands.

  (1)Red Flag on Globe Series

Fig. 2-9 shows a delivery unpackaged print matter with a 5 fen purple overprinted Jiaodong Temporarily Used and cancelled with war-time postmark form Laiyang on September 8th 1944, very rarely. One of three copies has been known.

  主图是半个地球及缀有五角星和镰锤的旗帜(图1-5),石版印于薄白纸,无齿孔。此邮票上有一条约5毫米长的植物纤维,在印刷过程中因为邮票纸表面与外力接触而粘于未干的油墨上面,位置正好位于邮票上的旗帜内,构成了它在邮票史上特殊而又珍贵的地位。

Fig. 2-10 shows a cover delivery from Yantai to Yaqian county, with a pair overprinted with Jiaodong temporarily use, 1 yuan red, and cancelled with postmark from Yantai with 10th February 1945, less than five pieces have been known today.

  The design of stamp was drawn in the half globe and flag with five-star and hammer and sickle(Fig.1-5). They were printed by lithographic plate on white thin paper, imperforated. A plant fibre of 5mm line was stuck on the surface of stamp during the process of printing, and just located inside the flag of stamp design, which formed its status of special and precious in the history of liberated areas stamps.

(图2-9)(图2-10)

  (图1-5)

(三)华中

  (Fig.1-5)

Fenral China

  (2)五角星镰锤党旗图邮票

9.淮南区五角星图邮票

  (2)Red Flags Series

  1. Five-Pointed Star Stamps of Huainan Area

  石版印于报纸,无齿孔,单有地方打孔,3分(绿色)有两种版式(图1-6):

五角星邮票1枚,面值20(分),浅绿色,邮票上部印有大写拉丁化新文字XUAI NAN(淮南)。淮南交通总站,于1943年发行。石板、报纸、无齿孔,图幅1818毫米,《新路东》报社印制,米纳设计,冯舫、高治平制版。全版20{(52)+(52)}枚,直列同方向或对倒tete-beche两次印刷,有双连过桥gutter-pair及双连对倒型tete-beche pair。面值为淮南币。

  Printed by lithographic plate on newspaper, imperforated, but stamps perforated locally can be found. There are two kinds of plates for the 3 fen green stamps. (Fig. 1-6)

图2-11为淮南区五角星图邮票不同刷色,以及使用实例。

  ① 图幅23.520mm,苏字为简化的 字;

Five-Pointed Star Stamps of Huainan Area, 20 fen denomination, light green, top area of stamp was printed with words HUAI NAN, issued by Huainan Communication Bureau in 1943. Stone plate, newspaper and imperforation, size 1818mm, printed by New East Road newspaper office, designed by Mina and platemade by Fang Fang and Gao Zhiping. 20 pieces per whole plate (5 x 2 + 5 x 2), printed two times in vertical array at the same direction or tete-beche, and gutter-pair or tete-beche pair have been found, currency was Huainan currency.

  ① Size of design: 23.520mm, the Chinese character 苏 on the stamps as .

Fig. 2-11 shows Huainan five-pointed star stamps with different printing colors, and its usage.

  ② 图幅2320mm,苏为苏字。

(图2-11)

  ② Size of design: 2320mm, the Chinese character 苏 on the stamps as 蘇.

11.淮南区稿字邮票

  (图1-6)

  1. Manuscript Stamp

  (Fig.1-6)

淮南区是新四军在1939年以后建立的抗日根据地之一。位于安徽省东部和江苏省西部,包括:蚌埠、淮南、合肥、寿县、全椒、六合、天长、扬州、盱眙、嘉山、凤阳等地。

  (3) 战士冲锋图邮票

淮南区抗日根据地设有淮南区交通总站,负责交通邮政事务。发行邮票的情况与苏中区大致相同,也是按分类的办法,只是私人贴用的邮票,苏中区叫做便邮,淮南则称私邮。

  (3)Soldier Charging Series

1942年春,淮南区交通总站开始发行邮票,图案为五角星,中间有表示免资的数字20,上面横列拼音文字HUAI NAN(淮南),供平常挂号公文使用。木刻版,印于报纸或电报号码纸背面,浅绿色。

  石版印于白土纸,图幅2520.5mm,无齿孔,面值5分(棕黄色)(图1-7),目前存世量新票不足10枚,旧票2枚,中国邮票博物馆藏有一件46枚的大连票。

Huainan area was one of the anti-Japanese bases which were set up by the New Fourth Army after 1939. It was located in east Anhui and west Jiangsu provinces, including Bengbu, Huainan, Hefei, Shouxian, Quanjiao, Liuhe, Tianchang, Yangzhou, Xuyi, Jiashan and Fengyang etc.

  Printed by lithographic plate on white paper, Size of design: 2520.5mm, imperforation, denomination: 5 fen, yellowish brown. (Fig. 1-7)

Huainan Communication Bureau was set up in Huainan anti-Japanese base area, which was responsible for communication and posts issues. Status of stamp issuing was similar as Central Jiangsu area, also defined as different types, only difference was, stamps for private use is called convenient stamp in Central Jiangsu while private stamp in Huainan.

  Less than ten unused stamps and two used stamps have been known. A block of 46 stamps is collected at the China National Postage Stamp Museum.

Huainan Communication Bureau started to issue stamps in spring of 1942, with pattern as five-pointed star, in middle of stamp there is the figure 20 which means post fee free, on top area there was spelling letters HUAI NAN, used for normal registered archives. With wooden plate, printed on back side of newspaper or telegraph number paper, with light green color.

  (图1-7)

用五角星图邮票的印版,刷红色,再在中间加印一个大号黑色稿字邮票,是专为淮南《新路东》报社通讯员寄发新闻稿件使用的邮票,邮票印于使用过的电报纸背面,用纸极为独特。稿字邮票存世10枚左右,皆为解放区邮票之罕品,而稿字四方连存世仅一件,被誉为中国解放区邮票中的红印花, 是中国革命战争时期最珍贵的邮票(图2-12)。

  (Fig.1-7)

稿字四方连邮票原为新四军老战士沈曾华收藏。 1943年夏,在淮南抗日根据地中共盱嘉县委工作的沈曾华奉调江淮大学,同吃同住在一起的报社通讯员周兴民,把笔记本里夹着的全新稿字四方连邮票送给沈曾华留作纪念,两人相约,等我们赶走了日本帝国主义,到城里再会。随后,沈曾华一直把这个四方连随身携带,直至全国解放。1980年,周兴民凭借《集邮》杂志上刊登的稿字四方连邮票照片,找到了阔别37年的老战友。从2005年起至今,稿字四方连邮票为笔者所藏。

  (4) 战士誓师图邮票

稿字票是淮南区独有的一个品种,与淮南区相邻的苏中区和盐阜区,也是发行分类图邮票,如平邮、机邮、快邮、私邮、便邮、密邮等。当时各根据地的邮政都是属于战邮性质,服务对象是各级党政机关,淮南日报社当然也在其内。

  (4)Soldier Pledging Series

With pattern of five-pointed star and red color, in middle area with big bold Manuscript stamp, it was specific used for reports to sending and receiving news manuscripts in Huainan New East Road newspaper office, stamp was printed on back side of used telegraph paper which was quite special paper. Less than ten pieces Manuscript stamp have been known, which were all rare ones in liberated area stamps. Only one block of four has been known, which was known as Red Revenue in China liberated area stamps, also was the most precious stamp in China revolution war-time period (Fig. 2-12).

  石版印于白土纸,图幅2320.5mm,无齿孔,面值8分(蓝绿色)(图1-8),目前仅见新票4枚、旧票1枚。

Block of four Manuscript stamps was initially collected by old soldier Shen Zenghua in the New Fourth Army. In summer of 1943, Shen Zenghua who worked in Communist Party Xujia county committee in Huainan anti-Japanese base area was transferred to Jianghuai University, Zhou Xingmin who worked as reporter in newspaper office and lived together with Shen Zenghua presented a unused block of four Manuscript stamps which was hidden in notebook to Shen Zenghua as souvenir, they made an appointment that, we would meet in the city after victory of war of anti-Japanese. Afterwards, Shen Zenghua always take the stamp along with himself till whole country was liberated. In 1980, Zhou Xingmin finally found his old comrade without contact for up to 37 years through the stamp photo published in magazine Stamp collection. From 2005 till today this stamp was collected by me.

  Printed by lithographic plate on white paper, Size of design: 2320.5mm, imperforated, denomination: 8 fen, light blue. (Fig. 1-8)

Manuscript Stamp is the type which solely existed in Huainan area, in Fenral Jiangsu area and Yanfu area which located next to Huainan area also issued pattern stamps, such as official、secret、express、private、confidential etc. The posts that moment in liberated area were mostly military posts, servicing objects were Communist Party, politician and other institutions, Huainan daily newspaper office was one of them.

  Only four unused stamps and one used stamps have been known.

(图2-12)

  (图1-8)

  1. 淮北平机手盖样票

  2. Proofs by Hand-Overprinted with Official and Secret of Huaibei Area

  (Fig.1-8)

到1944年,淮南、苏中、盐阜区先后都已发行了邮票,但淮北还没有发行。从现存的淮北实寄封可以看出信封上仅有邮戳而无邮票,无论公、私信件一律免费寄递。到1944年下半年淮北交通战曾酝酿发行邮票,行政公署主任兼组织部长刘瑞龙同志曾指示交通总站站长考虑这个问题,研究个方案。1945年初区党委和行署由半城迁到孙园集,交通站仍留在洪泽湖畔的半城镇,他们再次讨论是否发行邮票的问题。当时决定了一个临时过度的方案,也是一个特殊的方案,即在正式邮票确定发行前,先刻几枚邮票戳来代替邮票。这种邮票戳在淮北区内暂不使用,只在寄往外区的信上使用,在寄往外区信奉上分别加盖平或机的戳记,以代替邮票。这种戳记只使用了一段时间,未等正式邮票方案出台,抗日战争胜利了,淮北交通总站合并到新成立的苏皖边区政府邮政管理总局,此后就再未沿用。如果不是形势突变,发行淮北区邮票也可能实现,这件事不能不是淮北交通邮政史上的一个遗憾。

  (5) 工农图邮票

Areas of Huainan, Fenral Jiangsu and Yanfu all issued stamps till 1944, but Huaibei had not issued. From existed covers in Huaibei could be seen that there was only postmarks but no stamp on cover, post for free for both public and private. Huaibei posts had ever prepared to issue stamp in 2nd half of 1944, administration government director and organization minister comrade Liu Ruilong ever proposed head of Communication Bureau to take this issue in consideration and raise a scheme. Local Communist Party committee and administration government relocated from Bancheng to Sunyuanji in beginning 1945, communication bureau still in Bancheng town at bank of Hongze Lake, topic of stamp issuing was put forward once again. A provisional interim scheme was determined at that moment also a special scheme, namely to carve some pieces of stamp marks instead of stamp before formally issue the stamp. This stamp marks were not used in local Jiangsu-Anhui area temporarily and only used on letters delivered out of area. Hand-overprinted official and secret were printed on envelopes delivery out of area instead of stamps. This stamp mark was only used for short time, victory was got in anti-Japanese war just before formal stamp was issued, Huaibei Communication Bureau merged to newly built Jiangsu-Anhui area communication Bureau, the stamp mark was not used anymore afterwards. If situation mutation did not occurred it would be possible to issue stamp in Huaibei, it could be considered as a pitty in history of Huaibei posts.

  (5)Worker and Farmer Series

两种图案均类似淮南区的平与机邮,一种图案是飞鸟衔书,另一是手举火炬。两票上角均有淮北两字,以上两种戳记各刻两枚。这种戳记虽然简朴,但也记录了战时淮北邮政的艰苦创业精神。

  石版印于白色纸,图幅2320.5mm,无齿孔,面值1角,有两种版式(图1-9):

图2-13为淮北平机手盖样票。

  Printed by lithographic plate on white paper, imperforated, denomination: 10 fen. There are two kinds of plates. (Fig. 1-9)

The two kinds of patterns were similar as official and secret stamp in Huainan area, one pattern was flying bird taking (bite) the book, another pattern was holding torch by hand. Huaibei was marked on top area of stamp, two pieces were carved for above two stamp marks. This mark was simple but it recorded and reflected the struggling spirit of Huaibei posts in war-time.

  ① 邮票面值壹角直读,红色,苏维埃邮政的苏为苏状;

Fig. 2-13 shows the proofs by hand-overprinted with official and secret of Huaibei Area.

  ① Denomination of 壹角 1 Jiao read in vertically, red, the Chinese character 苏 on the stamps as .

(图2-13)

  ② 邮票面值壹角横读,浅红色,苏字为 状。

12.盐阜区寄递邮票

  ② Denomination of 壹角 1 Jiao read in horizontally, light red, the Chinese character 苏 on the stamps as 蘇.

  1. Delivery Issue of Yanfu Area

  (图1-9)

1945年3月1日《盐阜区交通总局通告》中规定:另有本局新制之寄递邮票一张,新抗五角,系专门使用寄递款项、包裹,简称寄邮。自3月15日实行。因此盐阜交通总局于1945年3月15日发行寄递邮票,全套1枚,面值五角,火车图案,深蓝色,文字为红色,木刻凸版,报纸印制,无齿孔,面值为新盐阜币(新抗币)。

  (Fig.1-9)

此票是火车头图案,习称火车头邮票。在实际使用中,也作为信函资费贴用。图2-14为该套邮票四方连已用票。

  (6)战士进军图邮票

Provisions in Notice of general posts Yanfu area on 1st March 1945: one piece newly issued delivery stamp, 50 fen, specific used for currency and package delivery, with name of delivery stamp, be used since 15th March Yanfu Communication Bureau issued delivery stamp on 15th Mar.1945, 1 piece per set, 50 fen denomination, pattern of train with blue color, red words, wooden carving protruding printing on newspaper, imperforation, new Yanfu current denomination.

  (6)Soldier Marching Series

Due to the pattern is head of train it is called Train head stamp. It was also acctualy used as post fee of letters.

  石版印于薄白纸,图幅22.520mm,无齿孔,面值3角(蓝色)(图1-10),目前仅见新票4枚,旧票1枚。

Fig. 2-14 shows a block of four used stamp of this set stamp.

  Printed by lithographic plate on white thin paper, Size of design: 22.520mm, imperforated, denomination: 30 fen, blue. (Fig. 1-10)

(图2-14)

  Only four unused stamps and one used stamps have been known.

13.苏中区第一版无面值邮票

  (图1-10)

  1. The First Print Stamps without Denomination of Central Jiangsu Area

  (Fig.1-10)

苏中区交通总站1942年11月1日发行。第一版机、快、平无面值邮票共3种,每种又分红字绿图和绿字红图2种刷色,全套共6枚。

  1934年10月,第五次反围剿失败,中央红军和苏维埃国家领导机构撤离中央苏区开始长征,苏区邮政机构相继解散。

机字票,以火炬为图案,供机密文件信件贴用;快字票,以飞鹰为图案,供快递信件贴用;平字票,以帆船为图案,供一般信件、文件、书籍贴用。这3种邮票不得供私人使用。图幅19.519.5毫米,文字用1号黑字体。机为简化字。齿孔:10.5度。报纸。全张枚数54(96)。3种邮票2种刷色全合印一全张。

  In October 1934, as the fifth counter-campaign against encirclement and suppression failed, the central red army and soviet national leadership evacuated central soviet area and began the long march, soviet postal organization were successively dissolved.

Communication Bureau of Fenral Jiangsu Area issued the first print secret、 express 、official stamps without denomination on 1st November 1942, in total 3 types, red word green picture and green word red picture for each type, a set of 6 stamps.

  6.西北苏区中华苏维埃邮票

Secret stamp with pattern of torch, used for confidential mails delivery; express stamp with pattern of eagle used for express mails delivery; official stamp with pattern of sailing boat used for normal mails, files and books delivery. This 3 types were forbidden to be used for private. Pattern size 19.519.5mm, size 1 bold words. Ji is simplified type word, perforation: 10.5 degrees, newspaper. 54 piece (9 x 6) per set. 3 types stamps with 2 printing color were printed on one sheet.

  6.Chinese Soviet Stamps of Northwest Soviet Area

这套邮票由忻元锡(当时名柳明,苏中交通总站副站长)筹划、构思、经办。1942年春,忻赴上海,在四马路(今为福州路)山东路口一家刻字制版商店制版。火炬图、飞鹰图、帆船图版各一块,每块9(33)枚。因9枚图案分别手工刻制,故各有差异。3块板子全为锌质凸版。该邮票由《苏中报》印刷厂印制。套印的机、快、平3字是木刻黑体字。印刷方法,先将3种图案的3块锌板排成横9纵3计27枚于上半部分,另将机、快、平27个木刻字按照相应的位置排在下半部分,先印红色(红图、红字)然后将图案与木刻字的位置互相对调一下,再印绿色(绿图、绿字),即成红图绿字、绿图红字之邮票。上半部分与下半部分之间的距离,相距约10毫米左右。由于是分色套印,因此红图绿字票为自盖图,绿图红字票为图盖字。

  1935年10月红军长征到达陕北。同年11月成立西北邮政管理局,12月发行了中华苏维埃邮政邮票,一套4枚,面值分别为半分、1分、2分、8分,币值为西北苏维埃币,无齿孔,均为木刻板手工盖印,邮票图案承袭苏维埃邮政邮票风格,以战士像、镰锤、红五星为主图,构图简明。半分、1分、2分,三枚边饰相同,苏字为 ,8分边饰及主图(圆圈中五角星)的位置与其它3枚不同,苏字为苏,此种8分邮票已知存世仅7枚。从版式、用纸、墨色等方面,可以看出,这套邮票是在中央工农红军到达陕北后不久,在困难的条件下印制的。

This set stamp was proposed and designed by Qi Yuanxi (with name Liu Ming that moment, deputy officer of Fenral Jiangsu Communication Bureau). Qi went to Shanghai in spring of 1942, plate made in one platemaking shop on corssing of Sima road (Fuzhou road today) and Shandong road. Each plate for torch pattern, eagle pattern and sailing boat pattern, 9 pieces (3 x 3) per plate. There are differences for the 9 pieces due to manually carved. All 3 plates were protruding plate made by zinc. The stamp was printed by Fenral Jiangsu Newspaper printing house. 3 words secret、 express 、official were bold words wooden carving. The printing method is, 9 vertical and 3 horizontal in total 27 pieces were arranged on top area of 3 zinc plates of 3 patterns, then secret、 express 、official in total 27 carving words was arranged on bottom area on corresponding positions, red color (red picture red words) was initially printed, then exchange positions of patterns and wooden carving words, green color (green picture green words) was printed afterwards, then stamps with red word green picture and green word red picture were generated. Approximately 10mm distance between top and bottom parts. Due to print with different colors, Green word red picture stamp was word covering on picture, red word green picture stamp was picture covering on words.

  In October 1935,the red army reached northern shaanxi after the long march. In November the same year, the Northwest Postal Administration was built, issued a set of 4 stamps with the inscription of Chinese Soviet Posts in December. Denomination of 4 stamps was respectively 1/2 fen, 1 fen, 2 fen and 8 fen; name of currency was northwest soviet currency, imperforated, printed in wooden engrave plate by handwork. Style of stamp design of Soviet Posts was adopted continually, which stamp had soldier image, hammer and sickle, five-star for main design, the composition was simple. Border ornament of three kinds of denomination 1/2 fen, 1 fen and 2 fen stamps were same, the Chinese character 苏 on the stamps as . Border ornament of denomination 8 fen stamp was different from other three ones, the Chinese character 苏 on the stamps as 蘇. Only seven stamps have been known. From the plate, paper, ink, etc., it is observed that this set of stamps was printed in very difficult conditions when red army reached northern shaanxi shortly.

由于当时处于残酷的战争环境,这套邮票印刷,时断时续,不是一次完成。当敌人进行扫荡、清乡时,即将印刷机器埋伏起来;敌人退走,情况允许时,又继续印刷。所用油墨、纸张,也是陆续购进的,能买到什么品种牌号的,即使用什么品种牌号的。故而这套邮票,在刷色深浅、纸质厚薄优劣方面,均有较明显的差异,因而可以把它分作深色、浅色二组。

  五星图邮票

图2-15为苏中区第一版无面值邮票,其使用实例目前仅见2件。

  Five Star Series

This set stamp was printed with intermittence due to cruel environment of war-time. The printing machine was hidden when enemy mop up; printing was continued after enemy left. The ink and paper used were also purchased with intermittences, the types used just depending on the types purchased. So there was evident deviations for this set stamp on printing color darkness, paper thickness and quality status, therefore it can be divided to dark color and light color two groups.

  木刻板手工盖印与白纸,2120mm,无齿孔(蓝色)(图1-11)。

Fig. 2-15 shows the first print stamp without denomination issued in Fenral Jiangsu area, only 2 covers were found today.

  Printed in wooden engrave plate by handwork on white paper, Size of design: 2120mm, imperforated, blue. (Fig. 1-11)

(图2-15)

  (图1-11)

  (Fig.1-11)

  7.陕甘宁特区中华邮政邮票

  7.Stamps of Chinese Postal Administration of Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia D.C.

  1937年3月,中华苏维埃西北邮政总局改为陕甘宁特区邮政管理局后,发行了中华邮政邮票一套3枚,其中2枚再版为大字,道林纸,石版,无齿孔。

  7. Stamps of Chinese Postal Administration of Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia D.C.

  In March of 1937, the Chinese Soviet Northwest Postal Administration was changed into Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia D.C. Postal Administration, issued a set of 3 stamps with the inscription of Chinese Post Service. Two stamps of them were reprinted in large characters, printed by lithographic plate on glazed printing paper, imperforated.

  (1) 宣传图邮票

  (1)Publicity Series

  石版印于白纸,图幅2320mm,无齿孔,面值半分(朱红色),由黄亚光设计。第二版半分(暗红)是按照第一版绘制,图案不如第一版细腻,字体不规则,中华邮政字体比第一版大。

  Printed by lithographic plate on white paper, Size of design: 2320mm, imperforated, denomination: 1/2 fen, vermilion, designer by Huang Yaguang.

  Reprinted 1/2 fen stamp: dark red, large characters, design the more rough, typeface irregularity, Chinese characters of Chinese Post Service larger than the first print.

  (2) 农耕图邮票

  (2)Farming Series

  石版印于白纸,图幅2320mm,无齿孔,面值1分(绿色)。

  Printed by lithographic plate on white paper, Size of design: 2320mm, imperforated, denomination: 1 fen, green.

  第二版1分(灰绿色),中华邮政字体比第一版大。

  Reprinted 1 fen stamp: grayish green, Chinese characters of Chinese Post Service larger than the first print.

  (3) 战士图邮票

  (3)Soldier Series

  石版印于白纸,图幅2320mm,无齿孔,面值2分(蓝色)(图1-12)。

  Printed by lithographic plate on white paper, Size of design: 2320mm, imperforated, denomination: 2 fen, blue. (Fig. 1-12)

  (图1-12)

  (Fig.1-12)

  1938年春,陕甘宁边区政府允许在区内设立中华邮政机构,边区邮政机构撤销,3月22日停止邮政业务,陕甘宁特区发行的中华邮政邮票完成了它的历史使命。

  In the spring of 1938, Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia border area government permitted to set up the organization of Chinese Post Service in the area. The border area postal organization were revoked, the postal operations were stop on March 22. The stamps of Chinese Post Service issued by Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia D.C. completed its historical mission.